I'd like to recommend the place where everyone could probably find mito quetzalcoatl enrique florescano pdf merge, but probably, you would. Read El Mito De Quetzalcoatl book reviews & author details and more at Amazon .in. Free delivery on Enrique Florescano (Author). Be the first. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind . Historian Enrique Florescano also analyzing Teotihuacan iconography argues that the .. Agaricales, Strophariaceae) From Mexico, Africa, and Spain" ( PDF). (translation of El mito de Quetzalcóatl original Spanish-language ed.).
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Enrique Florescano. Abstract. Out of the Quetzalcoatl, as well, remains as the leading reference in matters of authority and government. Thus, the obsession of . In addition, the historical Quetzalcoatl appears the historical and the divine Quetzalcoatl. Florescano, Enrique Quetzalcoatl y los mitos fundadores de. Index of Mexican Folktales. Berkeley: University pdf> Accessed July 25, of California Press. Florescano, Enrique. "Quetzalcoatl, un mito hecho.
This school of thought connected the "Toltecs" to the archaeological site of Tula , which was taken to be the Tollan of Aztec myth. Many historicists such as H.
Nicholson and Nigel Davies were fully aware that the Aztec chronicles were a mixture of mythical and historical accounts, this led them to try to separate the two by applying a comparative approach to the varying Aztec narratives. For example they seek to discern between the deity Quetzalcoatl and a Toltec ruler often referred to as Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl.
This approach applies a different understanding of the word Toltec to the interpretation of the Aztec sources, interpreting it as largely a mythical and philosophical construct by either the Aztecs or Mesoamericans generally that served to symbolize the might and sophistication of several different civilizations during the Mesoamerican Postclassic period.
Scholars such as Michel Graulich and Susan D. Gillespie maintain that the difficulties in salvaging actual historic data from the Aztec accounts of Toltec history are too great to overcome. For example, there is not one supposed Toltec ruler identified with Quetzalcoatl, but two: the first ruler and founder of the Toltec dynasty, and the last ruler, who saw the end of the Toltec glory and was forced into humiliation and exile.
The first is described as a valiant triumphant warrior, but the last as a feeble and self-doubting old man. This causes Graulich and Gillespie to suggest that the general Aztec cyclical view of time, where events repeated themselves at the end and beginning of cycles or eras was being inscribed into the historical record by the Aztecs, making it futile to attempt to distinguish between a historical Topiltzin Ce Acatl and a Quetzalcoatl deity.
Graulich argues that the Toltec era is best considered the fourth of the Five Aztec mythical "Suns" or ages, the one immediately preceding the fifth sun of the Aztec people, presided over by Quetzalcoatl. The Legend of the Suns can also shed some light on the nature of Quetzalcoatl. There are many versions of this legend, but all of them tell of the Nahuatl beliefs regarding the creation of the Earth, the world eras and their final destinies. Most of the sources divide the age of the world in four or five eras, each with its own major deity who became the sun until the end of that era, when the inhabitants of the earth were destroyed and then brought back to life once again in the next era.
Moreno de los Arcos offers an account of this legend based on an analysis of ten different sources, which I will try to summarize. When the gods were created by Ometeotl , god of duality, they decided to create the world and choose one of them to be the sun; however, this would start a conflict among them that would last for ages.
The god Tezcatiploca rose as the Earth Sun, the first sun, to shine light for the giants, the first inhabitants of the world; their era ended when Quetzalcoatl hit him with a mighty staff that took him down.
Soon after, Tezcatiploca emerged from the waters in the shape on an ocelot, and then the giants were devoured by ocelots. Then, Quetzalcoatl took his place as the second sun for the humans, the Wind Sun, but Tezcatiploca, who was still in the shape of an ocelot, stroke him and made him fall; a strong wind blew, and it took the humans with it, yet there were some who managed to grab a tree and save their lives, and they turn into monkeys.
Tezcatiploca then appointed Tlalocatecuhtli as the Fire Sun for the third era, but it reached its end when Quetzalcoatl summoned a rain of fire from the skies, and the humans were turned into birds. Next, Quetzalcoatl placed the goddess Chalchiuhtlicue as the Water Sun, but due to the actions of Tezcatiploca caused a deluge that drowned the humans, and those who survived were turned into fish. Finally, Quetzalcoatl became the sun of the fifth era, the Movement Sun, which is our current era, and it will end when Tezcatiploca steals the sun.
As mentioned before, Tezcatiploca was the one who slayed the sea monster Cipactli after sacrificing his foot to lure her out of her dwelling before the world was created History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Paintings, , meaning there was an additional connection between the headdresses of Cipactli at the Temple of the Feathered Serpent in Teotihuacan with Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatiploca.
Another point of particular interest is that in some legends, Quetzalcoatl must descend to the realm of the dead after the destruction of humans in the fourth era to gather the bones of man and woman and spill his own blood on them so as to bring humanity back to life, and then he gave them maize to sustain themselves Codex Chimalpopoca.
Quetzalcoatl was associated with Venus in Measoamerican culture, and his descent to the underworld before reappearing in the sky as the morning star might have served to explain such relationship Wirth, As a product of the pre-Columbian cultural blend, Quetzalcoatl embodies the attributes of important Aztec, Maya and Olmec deities.
In Nahuatl, he occasionally appears under the name of Ehecatl the wind among the Aztecs, who blows the winds from the four sides of the world and clears the way for the gods of water Florescano, , which highlights his aspect as a wind deity that carries the water in the shape of clouds, thus becoming a benefactor for humanity.
Yet Quetzalcoatl has not only been associated with supernatural figures. Historical records tell us of an Olmec priest-ruler of the tenth century named Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl who was chosen king of the city of Tula, a wise man that shared his knowledge on sciences and arts with his people, and who supposedly replaced human sacrifice with snakes and butterflies Codex Chimalpopoca.
The accounts of this ruler and the deep meaning of the symbolism behind the Feathered Serpent might explain why this deity was adopted by the ruling elites of Mesoamerica as a symbol of power, some of which held the name or title of Quetzalcoatl when they rose as leaders or high priests in order to strengthen their right to rule Lucero and Panganiban, Quetzalcoatl-Ehecatl Codex Laud The large body of myths and legends surrounding Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, lets us make a comparison between him and the myth of the dragon in other cultures.
As a dual entity of creation and destruction under the aspects of Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatiploca in the Legend of the Suns, it resembles the conflict between the storm god and the sea serpent or dragon in the cosmogony of the Ancient Near East civilizations.
In his aspect of Quetzalcoatl alone, he shares some similarities with the dragons of Eastern Asia, such as the Dragon Kings of Chinese Mythology, since they do not generally share the evil nature of their western counterparts, but are actually associated with wisdom and the weather mainly the elements of water and air , two of the main attributes of Quetzalcoatl.
Due to these similarities, it has even been theorized that the dragon myth may have reached the early settlements of pre-Columbian America in the form of oral traditions with the arrival of sea travelers and explorers that have the Pacific from Southeast Asia, and so the inhabitants of the American Continent could have incorporated the dragon as an additional supernatural element in their beliefs Elliot Smith, , but in a manner that suited their own interpretation of reality and the nature of their society.